Periarticular fractures are fractures of the bones that make up a joint. Common joint fractures occur in the shinbone (part of the knee joint), distal femur (part of the hip joint), and the ankle and wrist joints. Periarticular fractures require special care and consideration in the course of treatment to protect the function of the affected joint.
Pelvic and Acetabular fractures
An acetabular fracture is a break in the socket of the hip joint. Usually, they are caused by trauma such as a car accident. But they often occur in older people with weakened bone structures, as well. Pelvic and acetabular fractures usually require surgery to repair and stabilize the structure of the hip joint.
Hand and upper extremity fractures
The 27 tiny bones in the hand undergo a lot of stress and strain in our daily lives, which makes them prone to fractures. The small bones of the fingers, called phalanges, and the long bones that run across the palm, called metacarpals, are often broken by falls, accidents, and athletic activities. Most hand fractures do not require surgery, though on occasion, surgery will be necessary if the break is complex. Usually, treatment for a broken hand includes wearing a cast or splint.
The scapula, also known as the shoulder blade, is the large triangle-shaped bone of the shoulder that connects the torso to the arm. Fractures of the scapula are relatively rare, but they can occur as a result of high-impact sports, a car accident, or falling from a height. Most shoulder fractures can be successfully treated with non-surgical methods. In the case that the broken scapula is not only broken but pushed out of place, surgery may be necessary to restore correct positioning.
The clavicle, or collarbone, is the small, thin bone that runs from the center of the upper chest to the shoulder joint. Collarbone breaks are fairly common, and usually occur as a result of a direct hit from an impact sport, a car accident, or a fall. When the clavicle is fractured, the patient usually reports difficulty in lifting the arm.
A break in the thigh bone is sometimes referred to as a hip fracture if the break is near the top of the femur. Femur fractures can range from simple cracks to breaks that go completely through the bone. Femur breaks that include dislocation of the bone may require immediate surgery.
The tibia is the most commonly fractured bone in the human body. Also known as the shinbone, the tibia runs from the ankle to the knee on the front of the leg. It is the larger of the two bones of the lower leg. Tibia fractures can take many different forms, from chipping of the bone to a complete break that forces the tibia out of the skin (compound fracture). Treatment for fractures of the tibia depends on the location and severity of the break.
A hip fracture is a break in the upper part of the thigh bone near the hip socket. Surgery is almost always the treatment for a hip fracture. Fractures of the hip can be caused by trauma such as a car accident, but they are often common in older people with osteoporosis, as well. Some patients with previous conditions that make them prone to hip fractures may feel pain in the hip region before the actual break.
An ankle fracture can involve one or more of the three bones of the ankle – the tibia, fibula, and talus. Most ankle fractures occur in the same way as sprains, by twisting, turning or rolling the ankle to an unnatural degree. If the broken ankle is still stable, a cast may be all that’s needed to set it in place for healing. In more complex cases, surgery may be required.
Malunions and non-unions